Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided coil injection therapy of esophagogastric and ectopic varices

Surg Endosc. 2016 Apr;30(4):1396-404. doi: 10.1007/s00464-015-4342-3. Epub 2015 Jul 3.


Background: Endoscopic band ligation and glue injection are established techniques for variceal bleeding. As EUS may enhance variceal detection and improve therapeutic targeting, we aim to report our experience on EUS-guided coil embolization, with and without concomitant glue injection, of varices.

Methods: A prospectively maintained EUS database was retrospectively reviewed to identify consecutive patients who underwent EUS-guided variceal angiotherapy. All patients had failed or were poor candidates for standard endoscopic, surgical, or interventional radiologic therapies. The main outcome measurements were rates of rebleeding and adverse events.

Results: Fourteen patients [mean age 58 (SD 12) years, 50% male] underwent EUS-guided coil injection with (n = 4) or without (n = 10) concomitant glue injection to treat esophagogastric (n = 1), gastric (n = 5), duodenal (n = 3), or choledochal (n = 5) varices. Prior endoscopic and cross-sectional imaging detected only 57 and 64% of the varices seen. A mean of 5.1 (SD 1.9) coils and a median of 3.25 (range 2-3.5) mL of cyanoacrylate were injected during the initial procedure. During median follow-up of 12 (range 1-104) months, three patients died from unrelated causes and eight patients did not have further bleeding episodes. In the remaining three patients who had choledochal varices, the frequency and intensity of rebleeding decreased significantly. Only one asymptomatic adverse event occurred with coil migration to the liver.

Conclusions: EUS-guided angiotherapy of varices is safe and feasible in selected patients who failed conventional therapy, and should be considered in the clinical management of these patients.

Keywords: Angiotherapy; Coil; Cyanoacrylate; Endosonography; Varices.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cyanoacrylates / administration & dosage*
  • Endosonography / methods*
  • Esophageal and Gastric Varices / diagnostic imaging
  • Esophageal and Gastric Varices / therapy*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Injections
  • Ligation
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Recurrence
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Cyanoacrylates