Background: Spices have been used for thousands of years, and recent studies suggest that certain spices confer beneficial effects on gastric disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible chemopreventive effects of spice-derived compounds on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-induced gastritis.
Methods: We examined the inhibitory effects of curcumin, capsaicin, and piperine on H. pylori in vitro by determining the colony-forming units and real-time RT-PCR in H. pylori stimulated AGS gastric cancer cells. For in vivo analysis, 6-week-old SPF male Mongolian gerbils were infected with H. pylori, fed diets containing 5000 ppm curcumin, 100 ppm capsaicin, or 100 ppm piperine, and sacrificed after 13 weeks.
Results: All three compounds inhibited in vitro proliferation of H. pylori, with curcumin being the most effective. Infiltration of neutrophils and mononuclear cells was suppressed by piperine both in the antrum and corpus of H. pylori-infected gerbils. Capsaicin also decreased neutrophils in the antrum and corpus and mononuclear cell infiltration and heterotopic proliferative glands in the corpus. mRNA expression of Tnf-α and formation of phospho-IκB-α in the antrum were reduced by both capsaicin and piperine. In addition, piperine suppressed expression of Il-1β, Ifn-γ, Il-6, and iNos, while H. pylori UreA and other virulence factors were not significantly attenuated by any compounds.
Conclusion: These results suggest that capsaicin and piperine have anti-inflammatory effects on H. pylori-induced gastritis in gerbils independent of direct antibacterial effects and may thus have potential for use in the chemoprevention of H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis.
Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; Mongolian gerbil; capsaicin; chronic gastritis; curcumin; piperine.
© 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.