The bioactive peptide adrenomedullin (AM) exerts pleiotropic actions in various organs and tissues. In the heart, AM has an inhibitory effect on ventricular remodeling, suppressing cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and the proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts. This pharmacological property was shown not only in rat models of acute myocardial infarction, but also clinically in patients with this cardiac disease. An originally characterized feature of AM was a potent vasodilatory effect, but this peptide was found to be important for vascular integrity and angiogenesis. AM-induced angiogenesis is involved in tumor growth, while AM inhibits apoptosis of some types of tumor cell. A unique pharmacological property is anti-inflammatory activity, which has been characterized in sepsis and inflammatory bowel diseases; thus, there is an ongoing clinical trial to test the efficacy of AM for patients with intractable ulcerative colitis. These activities are assumed to be mediated via the specific receptor formed by calcitonin receptor-like receptor and receptor activity-modifying protein 2 or 3, while some questions remain to be answered about the molecular mechanisms of this signal transduction system. Taking these findings together, AM is a bioactive peptide with pleiotropic effects, with potential as a therapeutic tool for a wide range of human diseases from myocardial infarction to malignant tumors or inflammatory bowel diseases.
Keywords: Adrenomedullin; Adrenomedullin (PubChem CID: 56841671); Angiogenesis; Anti-inflammation; Cardiovascular protection; Cerebral protection; Cyclic AMP (PubChem CID: 6076); Tumor growth.
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