Sociodemographics, Comorbidities, Healthcare Utilization and Work Productivity in Japanese Patients with Adult ADHD

PLoS One. 2015 Jul 6;10(7):e0132233. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0132233. eCollection 2015.


Objectives: This study compared the sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, healthcare resource utilization, and work productivity among Japanese adults who reported being diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to those of a non-ADHD control population.

Methods: Data for this study were captured from an online survey of adults in Japan conducted by Kantar Health using consumer panels. A total of 84 survey participants reported they had received a diagnosis of ADHD from a physician. Survey responses pertaining to functional status and resource utilization from this ADHD group were compared to those from a non-ADHD control group of 100 participants. Comparisons between the ADHD and non-ADHD groups were made using chi-square tests for categorical variables and t-tests for continuous variables.

Results: Participants in the ADHD group were on average slightly younger with a higher proportion of males. ADHD respondents reported significantly more comorbid depression, sleep difficulties, headaches, and anxiety than non-ADHD controls. Over the previous 6 months, the ADHD group made more visits to healthcare providers and the emergency room, and had more hospitalizations than non-ADHD controls. The ADHD group also rated their overall health status lower than the non-ADHD control group. Respondents with ADHD reported a significantly higher degree of health-related work impairment compared to non-ADHD, with greater absenteeism and decreased work productivity. The ADHD group indicated their symptoms negatively impacted relationships, self-esteem, and regular daily activities.

Conclusions: Japanese adults with ADHD face a substantial burden of illness, including lower overall health status, increased number of comorbidities, greater healthcare utilization, and significant health-related occupational impairment compared to those without ADHD. Additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of both the consequences and treatment approaches for Japanese adults with ADHD.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anxiety / complications
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / complications
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / diagnosis*
  • Depression / complications
  • Efficiency*
  • Female
  • Health Services / statistics & numerical data*
  • Health Status
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Japan
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Patient Acceptance of Health Care*
  • Quality of Life
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / complications

Grants and funding

Eli Lilly Japan K.K. provided funds to Kantar Health for the conduct of the web-based survey and to conduct a range of activities as follows: Kantar health was responsible for data collection, data management and data analysis. Eli Lilly and Kantar Health were jointly responsible for the design of the study and the data analysis plan. All authors were involved in the interpretation of the study results, the decision to publish, and the preparation and review of the manuscript. The specific roles of these authors are articulated in the author contributions section. Eli Lilly provided support in the form of salaries for authors HI, TG and WM. Eli Lilly Japan K.K. provided funds to Strategic Health Outcomes, Inc., for writing and editorial assistance.