Skin absorption and human exposure estimation of three widely discussed UV filters in sunscreens--In vitro study mimicking real-life consumer habits

Food Chem Toxicol. 2015 Sep;83:237-50. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2015.06.025. Epub 2015 Jul 4.

Abstract

Due to health concerns about safety, three UV-filters (Benzophenone-3, BP3, 10%; Ethylhexyl Methoxycinnamate, EHMC, 10%; Butyl Methoxydibenzoylmethane, BMDBM; 5%) were examined in vitro for absorption on full-thickness pig-ear skin, mimicking human in-use conditions. Kinetic profiles confirmed the rapid permeation of BP3; after the first hour of skin (frozen-stored) exposure to 2 mg/cm(2) (W/O sunscreen; recommended but unrealistic amount), about 0.5% of the applied dose passed into the receptor fluid. The absorption rate of filters was higher from W/O than from O/W emulsions. The fresh/frozen-stored skin permeability coefficient (0.83-0.54) for each UV filter was taken into account. Systemic Exposure Dosage of BP3, EHMC, BMDBM for humans as a consequence of (i) whole-body and (ii) face treatment with 0.5 mg/cm(2) of W/O sunscreen for 6-h skin exposure followed by washing and subsequent 18-h permeation (a realistic scenario) were estimated to be (i) 4744, 1032 and 1036 μg/kg-bw/day, and (ii) 153, 33 and 34 μg/kg-bw/day, respectively. From Margin of Safety for BP3, EHMC and BMDBM (i) 42, 485 and 192 as well as (ii) 1307; 15,151 and 5882, respectively, only the value of 42 (<100) for BP3 indicated a possible health risk. Escalation of a phobia towards all organic UV filters is undesirable.

Keywords: Benzophenone; Butyl Methoxydibenzoylmethane; Dermal permeation; Ethylhexyl Methoxycinnamate; Margin of Safety; Systemic Exposure Dosage.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Abattoirs
  • Algorithms
  • Alkanes / metabolism*
  • Alkanes / toxicity
  • Animals
  • Benzophenones / metabolism*
  • Benzophenones / toxicity
  • Chalcones / metabolism*
  • Chalcones / toxicity
  • Cinnamates / metabolism*
  • Cinnamates / toxicity
  • Consumer Behavior
  • Diffusion
  • Ear
  • Emulsions
  • Habits
  • Humans
  • Kinetics
  • Models, Biological*
  • Propiophenones
  • Risk Assessment
  • Skin / drug effects
  • Skin / metabolism*
  • Skin Absorption*
  • Slovakia
  • Sunscreening Agents / metabolism*
  • Sunscreening Agents / toxicity
  • Sus scrofa

Substances

  • Alkanes
  • Benzophenones
  • Chalcones
  • Cinnamates
  • Emulsions
  • Propiophenones
  • Sunscreening Agents
  • ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate
  • benzophenone
  • avobenzone