Importance: Apart from hysterectomy, there is no consensus recommendation for reducing endometrial cancer risk for women with a mismatch repair gene mutation (Lynch syndrome).
Objective: To investigate the association between hormonal factors and endometrial cancer risk in Lynch syndrome.
Design, setting, and participants: A retrospective cohort study included 1128 women with a mismatch repair gene mutation identified from the Colon Cancer Family Registry. Data were analyzed with a weighted cohort approach. Participants were recruited between 1997 and 2012 from centers across the United States, Australia, Canada, and New Zealand.
Exposures: Age at menarche, first and last live birth, and menopause; number of live births; hormonal contraceptive use; and postmenopausal hormone use.
Main outcomes and measures: Self-reported diagnosis of endometrial cancer.
Results: Endometrial cancer was diagnosed in 133 women (incidence rate per 100 person-years, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.34). Endometrial cancer was diagnosed in 11% (n = 70) of women with age at menarche greater than or equal to 13 years compared with 12.6% (n = 57) of women with age at menarche less than 13 years (incidence rate per 100 person-years, 0.27 vs 0.31; rate difference, -0.04 [95% CI, -0.15 to 0.05]; hazard ratio per year, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.73 to 0.99]; P = .04). Endometrial cancer was diagnosed in 10.8% (n = 88) of parous women compared with 14.4% (n = 40) of nulliparous women (incidence rate per 100 person-years, 0.25 vs 0.43; rate difference, -0.18 [95% CI, -0.32 to -0.04]; hazard ratio, 0.21 [95% CI, 0.10 to 0.42]; P < .001). Endometrial cancer was diagnosed in 8.7% (n = 70) of women who used hormonal contraceptives greater than or equal to 1 year compared with 19.2% (n = 57) of women who used contraceptives less than 1 year (incidence rate per 100 person-years, 0.22 vs 0.45; rate difference, -0.23 [95% CI, -0.36 to -0.11]; hazard ratio, 0.39 [95% CI, 0.23 to 0.64]; P < .001). There was no statistically significant association between endometrial cancer and age at first and last live birth, age at menopause, and postmenopausal hormone use.
Conclusions and relevance: For women with a mismatch repair gene mutation, some endogenous and exogenous hormonal factors were associated with a lower risk of endometrial cancer. These directions and strengths of associations were similar to those for the general population. If replicated, these findings suggest that women with a mismatch repair gene mutation may be counseled like the general population in regard to hormonal influences on endometrial cancer risk.