1. Asunaprevir (ASV, BMS-650032), a highly selective and potent NS3 protease inhibitor, is currently under development for the treatment of chronic hepatic C virus infection. This study describes in vivo biotransformation in humans and the identification of metabolic enzymes of ASV. 2. Following a single oral dose of [(14)C]ASV to humans, the majority of radioactivity (>73% of the dose) was excreted in feces with <1% of the dose recovered in urine. Drug-related radioactivity readily appeared in circulation and the plasma radioactivity was mainly attributed to ASV. A few minor metabolites were observed in human plasma and are not expected to contribute to the pharmacological activity because of low levels. The area under the curve (AUC) values of each circulating metabolite in humans were well below their levels in animals used in the long-term toxicological studies. In bile and feces, intact ASV was a prominent radioactive peak suggesting that both metabolism and direct excretion played important roles in ASV clearance. 3. The primary metabolic pathways of ASV were hydroxylation, sulfonamide hydrolysis and the loss of isoquinoline. In vitro studies with human cDNA expressed CYP enzymes and with human liver microsomes (HLM) in the presence of selective chemical inhibitors demonstrated that ASV was primarily catalyzed by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5.
Keywords: ADME; HCV; asunaprevir; direct acting antiviral; reaction phenotyping.