Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative human pathogen with extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains emerging in hospitals across the globe. This systematic review is focused on the worldwide prevalence of XDR P. aeruginosa (XDR-PA) and on the risk factors associated with its colonization and infection, based on literature available through PubMed, Web of Science and BioMed Central databases. An overview of surveillance systems is provided as well as a synopsis on the prevalence of XDR-PA, showing an increase in recent reports. Risk factors independently associated with XDR-PA colonization or infections are described in four groups with reference to antimicrobial therapy, medical devices as well as patient- and hospital environment-related factors.
Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; acquisition; colonization; extensive drug resistance; extensively drug-resistant; infection; prevalence; review; risk factors.