Antifungal activity of propolis against Candida species isolated from cases of chronic periodontitis

Braz Oral Res. 2015;29:S1806-83242015000100278. doi: 10.1590/1807-3107BOR-2015.vol29.0083. Epub 2015 Jul 3.


This research evaluated the fungistatic and fungicidal activities of red propolis alcoholic extract (RPAE) against different Candida species isolated from chronic periodontitis cases, and compared with chlorhexidine (CHX). Nineteen samples of Candida species (C. albicans [n = 12], C. tropicalis [n = 5] and C. glabrata [n = 2]) isolated from chronic periodontitis cases were analyzed. The fungistatic and fungicidal activity of both RPAE and CHX were evaluated using fluconazole and C. parapsilosis (ATCC 6258) as a control. Fungistatic activity was analyzed based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) reference procedure to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations. Fungicidal activity was established according to the absence of fungal growth on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar medium. The fungistatic and fungicidal activities of RPAE were observed, respectively, at 32-64 μg/mL and 64-512 μg/mL for C. albicans, 64 μg/mL and 64-256 μg/mL for C. glabrata, and 32-64 μg/mL and 64 µg/mL for C. tropicalis. CHX fungistatic activity was observed at concentrations of 0.003-1.92 µg/mL for C. albicans, 1.92 µg/mL for C. glabrata, and 0.03-1.92 µg/mL for C. tropicalis. Fluconazole fungistatic activity ranged between 1-64 μg/mL, and fungicidal activity occurred at 8-64 μg/mL, for the three Candida species analyzed. All the Candida species were susceptible to RPAE antifungal activity, but five samples of C. albicans, one of C. tropicalis and one of C. glabrata were resistant to fluconazole antifungal activity. CHX showed fungistatic activity against all the Candida species analyzed. The antifungal potential of these substances suggests that they can be applied as an alternative treatment for diseases affected by these species.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Infective Agents, Local / pharmacology
  • Antifungal Agents / pharmacology*
  • Candida / drug effects*
  • Candida / growth & development
  • Candida / isolation & purification
  • Chlorhexidine / pharmacology
  • Chronic Periodontitis / drug therapy
  • Chronic Periodontitis / microbiology*
  • Fluconazole / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Propolis / pharmacology*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Anti-Infective Agents, Local
  • Antifungal Agents
  • Fluconazole
  • Propolis
  • Chlorhexidine