Gender Differences and Predictors of Mortality in Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy: Analysis from the National Inpatient Sample 2009-2010 Database

Cardiology. 2015;132(2):131-136. doi: 10.1159/000430782. Epub 2015 Jul 7.


Objectives: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) is characterized by left-ventricle apical ballooning with elevated cardiac biomarkers and electrocardiographic changes similar to an acute coronary syndrome. We studied the prevalence, in-hospital mortality, and predictors of mortality in TC.

Methods: All patients ≥18 years of age diagnosed with TC were identified in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) 2009-2010 database using the 9th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 429.83. Demographics, conventional risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and tobacco abuse), acute critical illnesses like sepsis, acute cerebrovascular disease (cerebrovascular accident; CVA), acute respiratory insufficiency, and acute renal failure, and chronic conditions (anxiety, depression, and malignancy) were studied.

Results: The prevalence of TC was 0.02% (n = 7,510). The total in-hospital mortality rate was 2.4%, with a higher mortality in men (4.8%) than in women (2.1%). Sepsis (9 vs. 4.2%; p < 0.01) was more prevalent in men with an increased prevalence of other critical illness, although this was not statistically significant. Age (OR 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.09), malignancy (OR 3.38; 95% CI 1.35-8.41), acute renal failure (OR 5.4; 95% CI 2.2-13.7), acute CVA (OR 9.4; 95% CI 2.96-29.8), and acute respiratory failure (OR 11.1; 95% CI 3.9-31.1) predicted mortality in fully adjusted models.

Conclusion: A higher mortality was seen in men, likely related to the increased prevalence of acute critical illnesses, ventricular arrhythmia, and sudden cardiac arrest. Acute CVA and respiratory failure were the strongest predictors of mortality. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.