Device landing zone calcification and its impact on residual regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation with different devices

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2016 May;17(5):576-84. doi: 10.1093/ehjci/jev174. Epub 2015 Jul 9.


Aims: Calcification of the device landing zone is linked to paravalvular regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The mechanisms remain incompletely understood and the performance of next-generation transcatheter heart valves (THV) has not been investigated. We evaluated the impact of calcification patterns on residual aortic regurgitation (AR) after TAVI with different THV in patients with severe aortic stenosis.

Methods and results: TAVI was performed in 537 patients at two centres. Devices implanted were the Edwards Sapien XT (n = 254), Medtronic CoreValve (n = 123), JenaValve (n = 62), Medtronic Engager (n = 56), and Symetis Acurate (n = 42) prostheses. Calcification of the device landing zone was retrospectively assessed from contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography data and correlated with echocardiographic and clinical data. Calcium volumes of the aortic valve and left-ventricular outflow tract were associated with residual AR: No AR, 604 mm(3) (inter-quartile range, IQR 349-916); trace AR, 639 mm(3) (IQR 368-948); mild AR, 710 mm(3) (IQR 412-2078); ≥moderate AR, 1041 mm(3) (IQR 791-1417, P = 0.001). Device landing zone calcium, particularly if located in the left-ventricular outflow tract, and a low cover index were predictive of AR. Differences in the incidence of AR were observed with regard to THV type. Higher calcium volume was associated with the need for post-dilation (n = 134, median 852 [IQR 342-945] vs. 604 [IQR 542-1207] mm(3), P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Calcification of the device landing zone, particularly if located inferior to the annulus, was independently associated with residual AR after TAVI with all evaluated THV; however, the incidence of paravalvular leakage differed significantly between the devices implanted.

Keywords: TAVI; aortic regurgitation; calcification; device landing zone; transcatheter heart valve.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Aortic Valve Insufficiency / diagnostic imaging*
  • Aortic Valve Stenosis / diagnostic imaging*
  • Aortic Valve Stenosis / surgery*
  • Calcinosis / diagnostic imaging*
  • Calcinosis / surgery*
  • Cardiac Catheterization / methods
  • Contrast Media / pharmacology
  • Echocardiography / methods*
  • Female
  • Germany
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation / methods
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Multidetector Computed Tomography / methods*
  • Observer Variation
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement* / methods


  • Contrast Media