Dynamic proline metabolism: importance and regulation in water limited environments

Front Plant Sci. 2015 Jun 25;6:484. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2015.00484. eCollection 2015.


Drought-induced proline accumulation observed in many plant species has led to the hypothesis that further increases in proline accumulation would promote drought tolerance. Here we discuss both previous and new data showing that proline metabolism and turnover, rather than just proline accumulation, functions to maintain growth during water limitation. Mutants of Δ (1)-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Synthetase1 (P5CS1) and Proline Dehydrogenase1 (PDH1), key enzymes in proline synthesis and catabolism respectively, both have similar reductions in growth during controlled soil drying. Such results are consistent with patterns of natural variation in proline accumulation and with evidence that turnover of proline can act to buffer cellular redox status during drought. Proline synthesis and catabolism are regulated by multiple cellular mechanisms, of which we know only a few. An example of this is immunoblot detection of P5CS1 and PDH1 showing that the Highly ABA-induced (HAI) protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs) have different effects on P5CS1 and PDH1 protein levels despite having similar increases in proline accumulation. Immunoblot data also indicate that both P5CS1 and PDH1 are subjected to unknown post-translational modifications.

Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana; P5CS1; drought; natural variation; post-translational modification; proline; proline dehydrogenase; protein phosphatase 2C.