Biomechanics and strain mapping in bone as related to immediately-loaded dental implants

J Biomech. 2015 Sep 18;48(12):3486-94. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2015.05.014. Epub 2015 Jun 19.

Abstract

The effects of alveolar bone socket geometry and bone-implant contact on implant biomechanics, and resulting strain distributions in bone were investigated. Following extraction of lateral incisors on a cadaver mandible, implants were placed immediately and bone-implant contact area, stability implant biomechanics and bone strain were measured. In situ biomechanical testing coupled with micro X-ray microscopy (µ-XRM) illustrated less stiff bone-implant complexes (701-822 N/mm) compared with bone-periodontal ligament (PDL)-tooth complexes (791-913 N/mm). X-ray tomograms illustrated that the cause of reduced stiffness was due to limited bone-implant contact. Heterogeneous elemental composition of bone was identified by using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The novel aspect of this study was the application of a new experimental mechanics method, that is, digital volume correlation, which allowed mapping of strains in volumes of alveolar bone in contact with a loaded implant. The identified surface and subsurface strain concentrations were a manifestation of load transferred to bone through bone-implant contact based on bone-implant geometry, quality of bone, implant placement, and implant design. 3D strain mapping indicated that strain concentrations are not exclusive to the bone-implant contact regions, but also extend into bone not directly in contact with the implant. The implications of the observed strain concentrations are discussed in the context of mechanobiology. Although a plausible explanation of surgical complications for immediate implant treatment is provided, extrapolation of results is only warranted by future systematic studies on more cadaver specimens and/or in vivo models.

Keywords: Alveolar bone; Bone–implant contact; Digital volume correlation; Implant; Strain.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Dental Implants / adverse effects*
  • Humans
  • Immediate Dental Implant Loading / adverse effects*
  • Incisor / diagnostic imaging
  • Mandible* / diagnostic imaging
  • Materials Testing*
  • Radiography
  • Stress, Mechanical*
  • Tooth Socket

Substances

  • Dental Implants