Short and long-term mortality in women and men undergoing primary angioplasty: A comprehensive meta-analysis

Int J Cardiol. 2015 Nov 1;198:123-30. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.07.001. Epub 2015 Jul 4.


Introduction: Women with acute myocardial infarction are treated less aggressively than men and have a higher mortality. It is possible that these sex-related differences in outcome are a result of differences in baseline risk and management.

Methods and results: We undertook a meta-analysis to study the differences in mortality among women and men with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (P-PCI). Studies reporting sex-specific crude mortality rates and/or adjusted effect estimates in STEMI patients undergoing P-PCI were identified. Among 48 studies, involving 103,895 patients, (26,556 women and 77,337 men), the crude in-hospital [pooled relative risk (RR): 1.94, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.74-2.16, p<0.001; 23 studies (n=43,872)], 30-day [RR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.50-2.07, p<0.001; 20 studies (n=43,279)], and long-term [RR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.46-1.76, p<0.001; 26 studies (n=51,656)] mortality was significantly higher in women compared to men. When meta-analysis using adjusted effect estimates from individual studies was performed, in-hospital [RR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.08-1.65, p=0.007; 14 studies (n=33,380)] and 30-day mortality [RR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.01-1.39, p=0.03; 14 studies (n=28,564)] remained significant while long-term mortality [RR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.93-1.11, p=0.75; 20 studies (n=52,492)] was no longer different between women and men.

Conclusions: Sex-based differences exist in short and long-term mortality among patients with STEMI undergoing P-PCI. However, these differences were markedly attenuated following adjustment for clinical differences and/or hospital course. Despite adjustment, short-term mortality remains higher in women than men, while long-term mortality was no longer significantly different.

Keywords: Gender; Mortality; Primary PCI; STEMI; Sex difference.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis

MeSH terms

  • Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary / mortality*
  • Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary / trends*
  • Female
  • Hospital Mortality / trends*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mortality / trends
  • Myocardial Infarction / mortality*
  • Myocardial Infarction / therapy*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Sex Characteristics*
  • Treatment Outcome