CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT) catalyzes a rate-limiting and regulated step in the CDP-choline pathway for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and PC-derived lipids. Control of CCT activity is multi-layered, and includes direct regulation by reversible membrane binding involving a built-in lipid compositional sensor. Thus CCT contributes to phospholipid compositional homeostasis. CCT also modifies the curvature of its target membrane. Knowledge of CCT structure and regulation of its catalytic function are relatively advanced compared to many lipid metabolic enzymes, and are reviewed in detail. Recently the genetic origins of two human developmental and lipogenesis disorders have been traced to mutations in the gene for CCTα.
Keywords: Amphipathic helix; Auto-inhibitory domain; Isoform functions; Lipid activators; Membrane translocation; Phosphatidylcholine metabolism.
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