Oral Administration of Lipopolysaccharide of Acetic Acid Bacteria Protects Pollen Allergy in a Murine Model

Anticancer Res. 2015 Aug;35(8):4509-14.


Background/aim: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, is known to possess strong immune-regulatory activity. We have found and reported the existence of biologically-active LPS in acetic acid bacteria. The LPS shows Limulus-positive activity and activation of macrophages to produce nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor. In this study, we investigated the anti-allergic effect of an orally-administrated acetic acid bacteria extract containing LPS; the cedar pollinosis model was used.

Materials and methods: Acetic acid bacteria were isolated from various fruits by Nodai kaihen medium. Then, the anti-allergic effect of acetic acid bacteria extracts was investigated. BALB/c mice were immunized with a mixture of cedar pollen and alum into their peritoneal cavity; they also received additional immunizations of pollen to nasal cavity. After immunizing the mice with pollen into their nasal cavity to trigger an allergic reaction, the frequency of nose scratching was counted for 5 min.

Results: The bacteria were cultured and prepared and the water-extract contained about 1-10 mg/ml of Limulus positive substances. The extract of acetic acid bacteria induced higher levels of interleukin (IL)-10 and FOXP3 mRNA expression in macrophages (RAW246.7 cell), as assessed by DNA microarray analysis. Oral administration of the acetic acid bacteria extract demonstrated significantly less scratching numbers than control water group with pollen immunization.

Conclusion: These results showed that LPS in acetic acid bacteria has the potential to protect from an allergic reaction, especially from cedar pollinosis.

Keywords: Lipopolysaccharide; acetic acid bacteria; anti-allergy; macrophages; oral administration of LPS.

MeSH terms

  • Acetic Acid / metabolism
  • Administration, Oral
  • Animals
  • Anti-Allergic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Female
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Gluconobacter / immunology*
  • Gluconobacter / metabolism
  • Immunoglobulin E / blood
  • Immunoglobulin E / immunology
  • Interleukin-10 / genetics
  • Lipopolysaccharides / administration & dosage*
  • Macrophages / immunology
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Pollen / immunology*
  • RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis
  • Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal / immunology*
  • Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal / prevention & control*


  • Anti-Allergic Agents
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors
  • Foxp3 protein, mouse
  • IL10 protein, mouse
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Interleukin-10
  • Immunoglobulin E
  • Acetic Acid