New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase-Mediated Carbapenem Resistance: Origin, Diagnosis, Treatment and Public Health Concern

Chin Med J (Engl). 2015 Jul 20;128(14):1969-76. doi: 10.4103/0366-6999.160566.


Objective: To review the origin, diagnosis, treatment and public health concern of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-producing bacteria.

Data sources: We searched database for studies published in English. The database of PubMed from 2007 to 2015 was used to conduct a search using the keyword term "NDM and Acinetobacter or Enterobacteriaceae or Pseudomonas aeruginosa."

Study selection: We collected data including the relevant articles on international transmission, testing methods and treatment strategies of NDM-positive bacteria. Worldwide NDM cases were reviewed based on 22 case reports.

Results: The first documented case of infection caused by bacteria producing NDM-1 occurred in India, in 2008. Since then, 13 blaNDM variants have been reported. The rise of NDM is not only due to its high rate of genetic transfer among unrelated bacterial species, but also to human factors such as travel, sanitation and food production and preparation. With limited treatment options, scientists try to improve available therapies and create new ones.

Conclusions: In order to slow down the spread of these NDM-positive bacteria, a series of measures must be implemented. The creation and transmission of blaNDM are potentially global health issues, which are not issues for one country or one medical community, but for global priorities in general and for individual wound care practitioners specifically.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Carbapenems / pharmacology
  • Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
  • Enterobacteriaceae / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa / drug effects
  • Public Health*
  • beta-Lactamases / metabolism*


  • Carbapenems
  • beta-Lactamases
  • beta-lactamase NDM-1