Background: Antimicrobial stewardship is a key component in the reduction of healthcare-associated infections, particularly Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). We successfully restricted the use of cephalosporins and, subsequently, fluoroquinolones. From an endemically high level of >280 cases per year in 2007-08, the number of CDIs reduced to 72 cases in 2011-12.
Aim: To describe the implementation and impact of fluoroquinolone restriction on CDI.
Methods: This was an interrupted time-series analysis pre and post fluoroquinolone restriction for 60 months based on a Poisson distribution model.
Findings: In June 2008, fluoroquinolone consumption halved to about 5 defined daily doses (DDD) per 100 occupied bed-days (OBD). This was followed by a significant fall in CDI number [rate ratio (RR): 0.332; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.240-0.460] which remained low over the subsequent months. Subsequently, fluoroquinolone consumption was further reduced to about 2 DDD/100 OBD in June 2010 accompanied by further reduction in CDI rate (RR: 0.394; 95% CI: 0.199-0.781). In a univariate Poisson model the CDI rate was associated with fluoroquinolone usage (RR: 1.086; 95% CI: 1.077-1.094).
Conclusion: We conclude that in an environment where cephalosporin usage is already low, the reduction in fluoroquinolone usage was associated with an immediate, large, and significant reduction in CDI cases.
Keywords: Antimicrobial stewardship; Clostridium difficile; Fluoroquinolones; Interrupted time-series analysis.
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