We have recently extended conventional single-pulsed-field-gradient (s-PFG) diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) to double-pulsed-field-gradient (d-PFG) diffusion MRI sequences, with a method known as double-pulsed DKI (DP-DKI). By virtue of a six-dimensional (6D) formulation for q-space, many of the results and insights of s-PFG DKI are generalized to those of DP-DKI. Owing to the fact that DP-DKI isolates the second order contributions to the d-PFG signal (i.e. second order in b-value), the 6D diffusional kurtosis encodes information beyond what is available from s-PFG sequences. Previously, we have demonstrated DP-DKI for in vivo mouse brain at 7 T, and it is the objective of this study to demonstrate the feasibility of DP-DKI at 3 T for the in vivo assessment of human brain microstructure. In addition, an example is given of how to utilize the additional information obtained from DP-DKI for the purpose of biophysical modeling. The relationship between a specific microscopic anisotropy metric estimated from DP-DKI and other recently proposed measures is also discussed.
Keywords: Double-pulsed-field-gradient; Human; Kurtosis; Microscopic anisotropy; Multiple-wave-vector; Non-Gaussian diffusion.
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