Double-pulsed diffusional kurtosis imaging for the in vivo assessment of human brain microstructure

Neuroimage. 2015 Oct 15;120:371-81. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.07.013. Epub 2015 Jul 11.


We have recently extended conventional single-pulsed-field-gradient (s-PFG) diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) to double-pulsed-field-gradient (d-PFG) diffusion MRI sequences, with a method known as double-pulsed DKI (DP-DKI). By virtue of a six-dimensional (6D) formulation for q-space, many of the results and insights of s-PFG DKI are generalized to those of DP-DKI. Owing to the fact that DP-DKI isolates the second order contributions to the d-PFG signal (i.e. second order in b-value), the 6D diffusional kurtosis encodes information beyond what is available from s-PFG sequences. Previously, we have demonstrated DP-DKI for in vivo mouse brain at 7 T, and it is the objective of this study to demonstrate the feasibility of DP-DKI at 3 T for the in vivo assessment of human brain microstructure. In addition, an example is given of how to utilize the additional information obtained from DP-DKI for the purpose of biophysical modeling. The relationship between a specific microscopic anisotropy metric estimated from DP-DKI and other recently proposed measures is also discussed.

Keywords: Double-pulsed-field-gradient; Human; Kurtosis; Microscopic anisotropy; Multiple-wave-vector; Non-Gaussian diffusion.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anisotropy
  • Brain / anatomy & histology*
  • Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Echo-Planar Imaging
  • Humans
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted