International society of sports nutrition position stand: Beta-Alanine

J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015 Jul 15;12:30. doi: 10.1186/s12970-015-0090-y. eCollection 2015.

Abstract

The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review of the mechanisms and use of beta-alanine supplementation. Based on the current available literature, the conclusions of the ISSN are as follows: 1) Four weeks of beta-alanine supplementation (4-6 g daily) significantly augments muscle carnosine concentrations, thereby acting as an intracellular pH buffer; 2) Beta-alanine supplementation currently appears to be safe in healthy populations at recommended doses; 3) The only reported side effect is paraesthesia (tingling), but studies indicate this can be attenuated by using divided lower doses (1.6 g) or using a sustained-release formula; 4) Daily supplementation with 4 to 6 g of beta-alanine for at least 2 to 4 weeks has been shown to improve exercise performance, with more pronounced effects in open end-point tasks/time trials lasting 1 to 4 min in duration; 5) Beta-alanine attenuates neuromuscular fatigue, particularly in older subjects, and preliminary evidence indicates that beta-alanine may improve tactical performance; 6) Combining beta-alanine with other single or multi-ingredient supplements may be advantageous when supplementation of beta-alanine is high enough (4-6 g daily) and long enough (minimum 4 weeks); 7) More research is needed to determine the effects of beta-alanine on strength, endurance performance beyond 25 min in duration, and other health-related benefits associated with carnosine.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Carnosine / metabolism
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Exercise
  • Fatigue / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Muscle, Skeletal / drug effects
  • Neuromuscular Agents / administration & dosage
  • Recommended Dietary Allowances
  • Sports Nutritional Physiological Phenomena*
  • Toxicity Tests
  • beta-Alanine / administration & dosage*
  • beta-Alanine / toxicity

Substances

  • Neuromuscular Agents
  • beta-Alanine
  • Carnosine