Background: A goal of searching risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) is to halt progressing to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) by potential intervention. To predict the future ESRD, 30% decline in estimated GFR over 2 years was examined in comparison with other time-dependent predictors.
Methods: CKD patients who had measurement of serum creatinine at baseline and 2 years were enrolled (n = 701) and followed up to 6 years. Time-dependent parameters were calculated as time-averaged values over 2 years by a trapezoidal rule. Risk factors affecting the incidence of ESRD were investigated by the extended Cox proportional hazard model with baseline dataset and 2-year time-averaged dataset. Predictive significance of 30% decline in estimated GFR over 2 years for ESRD was analyzed.
Results: For predicting ESRD, baseline estimated GFR and proteinuria were the most influential risk factors either with the baseline dataset or the 2-year time-averaged dataset. Using the 2-year time-averaged dataset, 30% decline in estimated GFR over 2 years by itself showed the highest HR of 31.6 for ESRD whereas addition of baseline estimated GFR, proteinuria, serum albumin and hemoglobin yielded a better model by a multivariate Cox regression model. This novel surrogate was mostly associated with time-averaged proteinuria over 2 years with the cut-off of ~1 g/g creatinine.
Conclusion: These results suggest that decline in estimated GFR and proteinuria are the risk factors while serum albumin and hemoglobin are the protective factors by the time-to-event analysis. Future incidence of ESRD is best predicted by 30% decline in eGFR over 2 years that can be modified by intervention to proteinuria, hemoglobin, uric acid, phosphorus, blood pressure and use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors in the follow-up of 2 years.