Chronic ethanol consumption induces mitochondrial protein acetylation and oxidative stress in the kidney

Redox Biol. 2015 Dec:6:33-40. doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2015.06.021. Epub 2015 Jul 6.


In this study, we present the novel findings that chronic ethanol consumption induces mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation in the kidney and correlates with significantly increased renal oxidative stress. A major proteomic footprint of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is an increase in hepatic mitochondrial protein acetylation. Protein hyperacetylation has been shown to alter enzymatic function of numerous proteins and plays a role in regulating metabolic processes. Renal mitochondrial targets of hyperacetylation include numerous metabolic and antioxidant pathways, such as lipid metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and amino acid metabolism, as well as glutathione and thioredoxin pathways. Disruption of protein lysine acetylation has the potential to impair renal function through metabolic dysregulation and decreased antioxidant capacity. Due to a significant elevation in ethanol-mediated renal oxidative stress, we highlight the acetylation of superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxins, glutathione reductase, and glutathione transferase enzymes. Since oxidative stress is a known factor in ethanol-induced nephrotoxicity, we examined biochemical markers of protein hyperacetylation and oxidative stress. Our results demonstrate increased protein acetylation concurrent with depleted glutathione, altered Cys redox potential, and the presence of 4-HNE protein modifications in our 6-week model of early-stage alcoholic nephrotoxicity. These findings support the hypothesis that ethanol metabolism causes an influx of mitochondrial metabolic substrate, resulting in mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation with the potential to impact mitochondrial metabolic and antioxidant processes.

Keywords: 4-Hydroxynonenal; Acetylation; Ethanol; Glutathione; Kidney; Oxidative stress.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Acetylation
  • Alcoholism / etiology
  • Alcoholism / metabolism*
  • Alcoholism / pathology
  • Aldehydes / metabolism
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Amino Acids / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Ethanol / adverse effects*
  • Glutathione / metabolism
  • Glutathione Reductase / metabolism
  • Glutathione Transferase / metabolism
  • Kidney / drug effects*
  • Kidney / metabolism
  • Kidney / pathology
  • Lipid Metabolism / drug effects
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mitochondria / drug effects*
  • Mitochondria / metabolism
  • Mitochondria / pathology
  • Mitochondrial Proteins / metabolism*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Oxidative Phosphorylation / drug effects
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Peroxiredoxins / metabolism
  • Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism


  • Aldehydes
  • Amino Acids
  • Mitochondrial Proteins
  • Ethanol
  • Peroxiredoxins
  • Superoxide Dismutase
  • Glutathione Reductase
  • Glutathione Transferase
  • Glutathione
  • 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal