An Update of the Evolving Epidemic of blaKPC Carrying Klebsiella pneumoniae in Sicily, Italy, 2014: Emergence of Multiple Non-ST258 Clones

PLoS One. 2015 Jul 15;10(7):e0132936. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0132936. eCollection 2015.

Abstract

Background: In Italy, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) strains are highly endemic and KPC producing CC258 is reported as the widely predominating clone. In Palermo, Italy, previous reports have confirmed this pattern. However, recent preliminary findings suggest that an epidemiological change is likely ongoing towards a polyclonal KPC-Kp spread. Here we present the results of molecular typing of 94 carbapenem non susceptible K. pneumoniae isolates detected during 2014 in the three different hospitals in Palermo, Italy.

Methods and results: Ninety-four consecutive, non replicate carbapenem non susceptible isolates were identified in the three largest acute general hospitals in Palermo, Italy, in the six-month period March-August 2014. They were characterized by PCR for β-lactam, aminoglycoside and plasmid mediated fluoroquinolone resistance genetic determinants. The mgrB gene of the colistin resistant isolates was amplified and sequenced. Clonality was assessed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. Eight non-CC258 sequence types (STs) were identified accounting for 60% of isolates. In particular, ST307 and ST273 accounted for 29% and 18% of isolates. CC258 isolates were more frequently susceptible to gentamicin and non-CC258 isolates to amikacin. Colistin non susceptibility was found in 42% of isolates. Modifications of mgrB were found in 32 isolates.

Conclusions: Concurrent clonal expansion of some STs and lateral transmission of genetic resistance determinants are likely producing a thorough change of the KPC-Kp epidemiology in Palermo, Italy. In our setting mgrB inactivation proved to substantially contribute to colistin resistance. Our findings suggest the need to continuously monitor the KPC-Kp epidemiology and to assess by a nationwide survey the possible shifting towards a polyclonal epidemic.

MeSH terms

  • Aminoglycosides / therapeutic use
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics*
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism
  • Carbapenems / therapeutic use
  • Clone Cells
  • Colistin / therapeutic use
  • Disease Outbreaks*
  • Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial / genetics
  • Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
  • Epidemiological Monitoring
  • Fluoroquinolones / therapeutic use
  • Gene Expression
  • Hospitals
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Italy / epidemiology
  • Klebsiella Infections / drug therapy
  • Klebsiella Infections / epidemiology*
  • Klebsiella Infections / microbiology
  • Klebsiella Infections / transmission
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae / classification
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae / drug effects
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae / genetics*
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae / isolation & purification
  • Membrane Proteins / genetics*
  • Membrane Proteins / metabolism
  • Multilocus Sequence Typing
  • Mutation
  • Plasmids / chemistry
  • Plasmids / metabolism*
  • beta-Lactamases / genetics*
  • beta-Lactamases / metabolism

Substances

  • Aminoglycosides
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Carbapenems
  • Fluoroquinolones
  • Membrane Proteins
  • beta-Lactamases
  • carbapenemase
  • Colistin

Grant support

The authors have no support or funding to report.