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. 2015 Jul 15;6(4):430-9.
doi: 10.3945/an.114.008177. Print 2015 Jul.

Fructose-containing Sugars and Cardiovascular Disease

Free PMC article

Fructose-containing Sugars and Cardiovascular Disease

James M Rippe et al. Adv Nutr. .
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Erratum in


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the single largest cause of mortality in the United States and worldwide. Numerous risk factors have been identified for CVD, including a number of nutritional factors. Recently, attention has been focused on fructose-containing sugars and their putative link to risk factors for CVD. In this review, we focus on recent studies related to sugar consumption and cardiovascular risk factors including lipids, blood pressure, obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. We then examine the scientific basis for competing recommendations for sugar intake. We conclude that although it appears prudent to avoid excessive consumption of fructose-containing sugars, levels within the normal range of human consumption are not uniquely related to CVD risk factors with the exception of triglycerides, which may rise when simple sugars exceed 20% of energy per day, particularly in hypercaloric settings.

Keywords: fructose; high-fructose corn sugar; metabolism; sucrose; sugars.

Conflict of interest statement

Author disclosures: TJ Angelopoulos, no conflicts of interest. JM Rippe’s research laboratory has received unrestricted grants, and JM Rippe has received consulting fees from ConAgra Foods, Kraft Foods, Florida Department of Citrus, PepsiCo International, The Coca Cola Company, Dr. Pepper/Snapple Group, Corn Refiners Association, and Weight Watchers International as well as royalties and editorial office support from CRC Press, Sage Publishing, and Springer Publishers.

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