Cardiovascular pharmacogenomics: current status and future directions

J Hum Genet. 2016 Jan;61(1):79-85. doi: 10.1038/jhg.2015.78. Epub 2015 Jul 16.


Drugs are widely used and highly effective in the treatment of heart disease. Nevertheless, in some instances, even drugs effective in a population display lack of efficacy or adverse drug reactions in individual patients, often in an apparently unpredictable fashion. This review summarizes the genomic factors now known to influence variability in responses to widely used cardiovascular drugs such as clopidogrel, warfarin, heparin and statins. Genomic approaches being used to discover new pathways in common cardiovascular diseases and thus potential new targets for drug development are described. Finally, the way in which this new information is likely to be used in an electronic medical record environment is discussed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Arrhythmias, Cardiac / genetics
  • Cardiovascular Agents / adverse effects
  • Cardiovascular Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Clopidogrel
  • Genetic Variation*
  • Genomics
  • Hematologic Agents / adverse effects
  • Hematologic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Heparin / adverse effects
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Pharmacogenetics / trends
  • Ticlopidine / analogs & derivatives
  • Ticlopidine / therapeutic use
  • Warfarin / adverse effects
  • Warfarin / therapeutic use


  • Cardiovascular Agents
  • Hematologic Agents
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
  • Warfarin
  • Heparin
  • Clopidogrel
  • Ticlopidine