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Multicenter Study
, 85 (7), 626-33

Amyloid Precursor Protein Metabolism and Inflammation Markers in Preclinical Alzheimer Disease

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Multicenter Study

Amyloid Precursor Protein Metabolism and Inflammation Markers in Preclinical Alzheimer Disease

Daniel Alcolea et al. Neurology.

Abstract

Objective: To investigate CSF markers involved in amyloid precursor protein processing, neuronal damage, and neuroinflammation in the preclinical stages of Alzheimer disease (AD) and participants with suspected non-Alzheimer pathology (SNAP).

Methods: We collected CSF from 266 cognitively normal volunteers participating in a cross-sectional multicenter study (the SIGNAL study) to investigate markers involved in amyloid precursor protein processing (Aβ42, sAPPβ, β-secretase activity), neuronal damage (total-tau [t-tau], phospho-tau [p-tau]), and neuroinflammation (YKL-40). We analyzed the relationship among biomarkers, clinical variables, and the APOE genotype, and compared biomarker levels across the preclinical stages of the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association classification: stage 0, 1, 2, 3, and SNAP.

Results: The median age in the whole cohort was 58.8 years (range 39.8-81.6). Participants in stages 2-3 and SNAP had higher levels of YKL-40 than those in stages 0 and 1. Participants with SNAP had higher levels of sAPPβ than participants in stage 0 and 1. No differences were found between stages 0, 1, and 2-3 in sAPPβ and β-secretase activity in CSF. Age correlated with t-tau, p-tau, and YKL-40. It also correlated with Aβ42, but only in APOE ε4 carriers. Aβ42 correlated positively with t-tau, sAPPβ, and YKL-40 in participants with normal Aβ42.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that inflammation in the CNS increases in normal aging and is intimately related to markers of neurodegeneration in the preclinical stages of AD and SNAP. sAPPβ and β-secretase activity are not useful diagnostic or staging markers in preclinical AD.

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