Lv4 Is a Capsid-Specific Antiviral Activity in Human Blood Cells That Restricts Viruses of the SIVMAC/SIVSM/HIV-2 Lineage Prior to Integration

PLoS Pathog. 2015 Jul 16;11(7):e1005050. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005050. eCollection 2015 Jul.


HIV-2 and SIVMAC are AIDS-causing, zoonotic lentiviruses that jumped to humans and rhesus macaques, respectively, from SIVSM-bearing sooty mangabey monkeys. Cross-species transmission events such as these sometimes necessitate virus adaptation to species-specific, host restriction factors such as TRIM5. Here, a new human restriction activity is described that blocks viruses of the SIVSM/SIVMAC/HIV-2 lineage. Human T, B, and myeloid cell lines, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and dendritic cells were 4 to >100-fold less transducible by VSV G-pseudotyped SIVMAC, HIV-2, or SIVSM than by HIV-1. In contrast, transduction of six epithelial cell lines was equivalent to that by HIV-1. Substitution of HIV-1 CA with the SIVMAC or HIV-2 CA was sufficient to reduce HIV-1 transduction to the level of the respective vectors. Among such CA chimeras there was a general trend such that CAs from epidemic HIV-2 Group A and B isolates were the most infectious on human T cells, CA from a 1° sooty mangabey isolate was the least infectious, and non-epidemic HIV-2 Group D, E, F, and G CAs were in the middle. The CA-specific decrease in infectivity was observed with either HIV-1, HIV-2, ecotropic MLV, or ALV Env pseudotypes, indicating that it was independent of the virus entry pathway. As2O3, a drug that suppresses TRIM5-mediated restriction, increased human blood cell transduction by SIVMAC but not by HIV-1. Nonetheless, elimination of TRIM5 restriction activity did not rescue SIVMAC transduction. Also, in contrast to TRIM5-mediated restriction, the SIVMAC CA-specific block occurred after completion of reverse transcription and the formation of 2-LTR circles, but before establishment of the provirus. Transduction efficiency in heterokaryons generated by fusing epithelial cells with T cells resembled that in the T cells, indicative of a dominant-acting SIVMAC restriction activity in the latter. These results suggest that the nucleus of human blood cells possesses a restriction factor specific for the CA of HIV-2/SIVMAC/SIVSM and that cross-species transmission of SIVSM to human T cells necessitated adaptation of HIV-2 to this putative restriction factor.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antiviral Agents / pharmacology*
  • Capsid / microbiology*
  • Cell Line
  • Dendritic Cells / drug effects
  • Dendritic Cells / virology
  • HIV-2 / drug effects*
  • HIV-2 / genetics
  • HIV-2 / immunology
  • Humans
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear / immunology
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear / virology*
  • Simian Immunodeficiency Virus / drug effects*
  • Simian Immunodeficiency Virus / genetics
  • T-Lymphocytes / drug effects
  • T-Lymphocytes / virology
  • Virus Integration / drug effects*


  • Antiviral Agents