Achondroplasia: Current Options and Future Perspective

Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2015 Jun;12(4):388-95.


Achondroplasia is a human bone genetic disorder of the growth plate and is the most common form of inherited disproportionate short stature. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant disease with essentially complete penetrance. Of these most have the same point mutation in the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) which is a negative regulator of bone growth. The clinical and radiological features of achondroplasia can easily be identified; they include disproportionate short stature with rhizomelic shortening, macrocephaly with frontal bossing, midface hypoplasia, lumbar hyperlordosis, and a trident hand configuration. The majority of achondroplasts have a normal intelligence, but many social and medical complications may compromise a full and productive life. Some of them have serious health consequences related to hydrocephalus, craniocervical junction compression, or upper-airway obstruction. In this article, we discuss a number of treatments from the surgical limb lengthening approach and the Recombinant Growth Hormone (rhGH) treatment, to future treatments, which include the Natriuretic Peptide C-type (CNP). The discussion is a comparative study of the complications and drawbacks of various experiments using numerous strategies.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Achondroplasia* / complications
  • Achondroplasia* / genetics
  • Achondroplasia* / therapy
  • Airway Obstruction / etiology
  • Body Height
  • Cervical Cord
  • Extremities / surgery
  • Female
  • Human Growth Hormone / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Hydrocephalus / etiology
  • Male
  • Point Mutation / genetics
  • Radiography
  • Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3 / genetics
  • Spinal Cord Compression / etiology


  • Human Growth Hormone
  • FGFR3 protein, human
  • Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3