Objective: Despite advances in stent technology for vascular interventions, in-stent restenosis (ISR) because of myointimal hyperplasia remains a major complication.
Approach and results: We investigated the regulatory role of microRNAs in myointimal hyperplasia/ISR, using a humanized animal model in which balloon-injured human internal mammary arteries with or without stenting were transplanted into Rowett nude rats, followed by microRNA profiling. miR-21 was the only significantly upregulated candidate. In addition, miR-21 expression was increased in human tissue samples from patients with ISR compared with coronary artery disease specimen. We systemically repressed miR-21 via intravenous fluorescein-tagged-locked nucleic acid-anti-miR-21 (anti-21) in our humanized myointimal hyperplasia model. As expected, suppression of vascular miR-21 correlated dose dependently with reduced luminal obliteration. Furthermore, anti-21 did not impede reendothelialization. However, systemic anti-miR-21 had substantial off-target effects, lowering miR-21 expression in liver, heart, lung, and kidney with concomitant increase in serum creatinine levels. We therefore assessed the feasibility of local miR-21 suppression using anti-21-coated stents. Compared with bare-metal stents, anti-21-coated stents effectively reduced ISR, whereas no significant off-target effects could be observed.
Conclusion: This study demonstrates the efficacy of an anti-miR-coated stent for the reduction of ISR.
Keywords: coronary restenosis; hyperplasia; microRNAs; rats; stents.
© 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.