Differences in risk behaviours, HIV/STI testing and HIV/STI prevalence between men who have sex with men and men who have sex with both men and women in China

Int J STD AIDS. 2016 Sep;27(10):840-9. doi: 10.1177/0956462415596302. Epub 2015 Jul 15.


Differences in risk behaviours between men who have sex with men (MSM) and men who have sex with both men and women (MSMW) have important implications for HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission. We examined differences in risk behaviours, HIV/STI testing, self-reported HIV/STI diagnoses, and linkage to HIV care between MSM and MSMW across China. Participants were recruited through three MSM-focused websites in China. An online survey containing items on socio-demographics, risk behaviours, testing history, self-reported HIV/STI diagnosis, and linkage to and retention in HIV care was completed from September to October 2014. Chi square tests and logistic regression analyses were conducted. MSMW were less likely to use a condom during last anal sex (p ≤ 0.01) and more likely to engage in group sex (p ≤ 0.01) and transactional sex (p ≤ 0.01) compared to MSM. Self-reported HIV/STI testing and positivity rates between MSM and MSMW were similar. Among HIV-infected MSM, there was no difference in rates of linkage to or retention in antiretroviral therapy when comparing MSM and MSMW. Chinese MSM and MSMW may benefit from different HIV and STI intervention and prevention strategies. Achieving a successful decrease in HIV/STI epidemics among Chinese MSM and MSMW will depend on the ability of targeted and culturally congruent HIV/STI control programmes to facilitate a reduction in risk behaviours.

Keywords: AIDS; China; HIV; STI; condom use; men who have sex with both men and women; men who have sex with men; risk behaviours; sexually transmitted infection.

MeSH terms

  • AIDS Serodiagnosis / statistics & numerical data*
  • Adult
  • Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use
  • Bisexuality / psychology
  • Bisexuality / statistics & numerical data*
  • China / epidemiology
  • Condoms / statistics & numerical data*
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / diagnosis*
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology
  • Homosexuality, Male / psychology
  • Homosexuality, Male / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mass Screening
  • Medication Adherence
  • Middle Aged
  • Patient Acceptance of Health Care
  • Risk Factors
  • Risk-Taking*
  • Sexual Partners
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Young Adult


  • Anti-Retroviral Agents