Budesonide ameliorates lung function of the cigarette smoke-exposed rats through reducing matrix metalloproteinase-1 content

Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015 May 1;8(5):5137-44. eCollection 2015.


Objectives: This study was conducted to investigate an effect of inhaled budesonide on cigarette smoke-exposed lungs with a possible mechanism involved in the event.

Methods: Rats were exposed to air (control) and cigarette smoke (smoking) in presence and absence of budesonide. Inflammatory cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), lung function testing, mean liner intercept (MLI) in lung tissue, mean alveolar number (MAN) and a ratio of bronchial wall thickness and external diameter (BWT/D) were determined in the grouped rats, respectively. Contents of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2 productions in BALF were examined as well.

Results: There were significant changes in the above assessments in the smoking rats as compared to those in the control rats (all P<0.01 and 0.05). Budesonide inhalation significantly decreased the numbers of the BALF cells and partly reversed lung function decline in the challenged rats (P<0.01 and 0.05). However, this corticosteroid did not influence pathological changes in fine structures of the tobacco smoke-exposed lungs. Treatment with budesonide resulted in an obvious decrease in the MMP-1 but not MMP-2 and TIMP-2 productions (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Inhaled budesonide mitigates the ongoing inflammatory process in the smoked lungs and ameliorates declining lung function through reducing MMP-1 content.

Keywords: Budesonide; cigarette smoke; lung function and matrix metalloproteinase; pulmonary inflammation.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Inhalation
  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones / administration & dosage
  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / administration & dosage
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid / cytology
  • Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid / immunology
  • Budesonide / administration & dosage
  • Budesonide / pharmacology*
  • Down-Regulation
  • Forced Expiratory Volume / drug effects
  • Lung / drug effects*
  • Lung / enzymology
  • Lung / immunology
  • Lung / pathology
  • Lung / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 / metabolism*
  • Models, Animal
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Smoking / adverse effects*
  • Vital Capacity / drug effects


  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Budesonide
  • MMP1 protein, rat
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 1