Objective: The objective of this paper is to evaluate hospital admissions in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients through a retrospective population-based study analyzing hospitalization data during 2001-2012 in Sardinia, an Italian region with universal health system coverage.
Methods: Data on the hospital discharge records with the ICD-9-CM code for SLE (710.0) were obtained from the Department of Health and Hygiene and analyzed, mostly focusing on primary and non-primary diagnosis and Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) code. In order to establish the significance of the annual trend for number and type of primary and non-primary discharge diagnosis, the two-tailed Cochran-Armitage test for trend was applied. In order to estimate SLE prevalence, data from administrative database and medical records were assembled.
Results: This study included 6222 hospitalizations in 1675 patients (87% women). Hospitalizations with SLE as primary diagnosis were 3782 (58.0%) and significantly decreased during the study period. The annual number of renal, hematologic and neuropsychiatric disorders as non-primary diagnosis associated with SLE remained constant; however, their percentage increased (p < 0.0001) because of a declining number of admissions for SLE without associated diagnosis and without complications. Hospitalizations with SLE as non-primary diagnosis showed a significant upward trend in number and percentage of cerebrovascular accident (p = 0.0004), acute coronary syndrome (p = 0.0004) and chronic renal failure (p = 0.0003) as underlying primary diagnosis, while complications of pregnancy, labor and childbirth (p = 0.3375), malignancies (p = 0.6608) and adverse drug reactions (p = 0.2456) did not show statistically significant changes. Infections showed an increasing trend between 2001 and 2012 but did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.0304). After correction for hospitalization (93.8%) and survival (91.1%) rates calculated over the study period, the 2012 SLE prevalence in Sardinia was estimated to be 99.3 per 100,000 inhabitants.
Conclusions: While overall hospitalizations for SLE patients declined, those for cerebrovascular accident, acute coronary syndrome and chronic renal failure as underlying primary diagnosis increased during the study period.
Keywords: Systemic lupus erythematosus; acute coronary syndrome; cardiovascular diseases; epidemiology; health care; hospitalization; infections; neuropsychiatric disorders; prevalence; renal disorders.
© The Author(s) 2015.