The retromer complex in development and disease

Development. 2015 Jul 15;142(14):2392-6. doi: 10.1242/dev.123737.


The retromer complex is a multimeric protein complex involved in recycling proteins from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network or plasma membrane. It thus regulates the abundance and subcellular distribution of its cargo within cells. Studies using model organisms show that the retromer complex is involved in specific developmental processes. Moreover, a number of recent studies implicate aberrant retromer function in photoreceptor degeneration, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Here, and in the accompanying poster, we provide an overview of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of retromer-mediated protein trafficking, highlighting key examples of retromer function in vivo.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; Endocytic recycling; Epithelial apical polarity; Heme formation; Parkinson's disease; Photoreceptor degeneration; Retromer; Wingless/Wnt signaling.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alzheimer Disease / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Cell Membrane / metabolism
  • Drosophila Proteins / metabolism
  • Drosophila melanogaster / metabolism
  • Endosomes / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental*
  • Humans
  • Multiprotein Complexes / physiology*
  • Neurons / metabolism
  • Parkinson Disease / metabolism
  • Protein Transport / physiology
  • Signal Transduction
  • Vesicular Transport Proteins / metabolism
  • Wnt Proteins / metabolism
  • trans-Golgi Network / metabolism


  • Drosophila Proteins
  • Multiprotein Complexes
  • VPS26A protein, human
  • VPS29 protein, human
  • VPS35 protein, human
  • Vesicular Transport Proteins
  • Wnt Proteins