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, 10 (7), e0130127
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Phylogeny of Dictyoptera: Dating the Origin of Cockroaches, Praying Mantises and Termites With Molecular Data and Controlled Fossil Evidence

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Phylogeny of Dictyoptera: Dating the Origin of Cockroaches, Praying Mantises and Termites With Molecular Data and Controlled Fossil Evidence

Frédéric Legendre et al. PLoS One.

Abstract

Understanding the origin and diversification of organisms requires a good phylogenetic estimate of their age and diversification rates. This estimate can be difficult to obtain when samples are limited and fossil records are disputed, as in Dictyoptera. To choose among competing hypotheses of origin for dictyopteran suborders, we root a phylogenetic analysis (~800 taxa, 10 kbp) within a large selection of outgroups and calibrate datings with fossils attributed to lineages with clear synapomorphies. We find the following topology: (mantises, (other cockroaches, (Cryptocercidae, termites)). Our datings suggest that crown-Dictyoptera-and stem-mantises-would date back to the Late Carboniferous (~ 300 Mya), a result compatible with the oldest putative fossil of stem-dictyoptera. Crown-mantises, however, would be much more recent (~ 200 Mya; Triassic/Jurassic boundary). This pattern (i.e., old origin and more recent diversification) suggests a scenario of replacement in carnivory among polyneopterous insects. The most recent common ancestor of (cockroaches + termites) would date back to the Permian (~275 Mya), which contradicts the hypothesis of a Devonian origin of cockroaches. Stem-termites would date back to the Triassic/Jurassic boundary, which refutes a Triassic origin. We suggest directions in extant and extinct species sampling to sharpen this chronological framework and dictyopteran evolutionary studies.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Figures

Fig 1
Fig 1. Result of the concatenated analysis of six molecular markers in Maximum Likelihood: mantises.
Family names are labeled on the right of the clades. Bootstrap support values are displayed for each node. * = non-monophyletic families.
Fig 2
Fig 2. Result of the concatenated analysis of six molecular markers in Maximum Likelihood: mantises (continued).
Legend as in Fig 1.
Fig 3
Fig 3. Result of the concatenated analysis of six molecular markers in Maximum Likelihood: mantises (continued).
Legend as in Fig 1.
Fig 4
Fig 4. Result of the concatenated analysis of six molecular markers in Maximum Likelihood: cockroaches.
Legend as in Fig 1.
Fig 5
Fig 5. Result of the concatenated analysis of six molecular markers in Maximum Likelihood: cockroaches (continued).
Legend as in Fig 1.
Fig 6
Fig 6. Result of the concatenated analysis of six molecular markers in Maximum Likelihood: termites.
Legend as in Fig 1.
Fig 7
Fig 7. Result of the concatenated analysis of six molecular markers in Maximum Likelihood: termites (continued).
Legend as in Fig 1.
Fig 8
Fig 8. Result of the concatenated analysis of six molecular markers in Maximum Likelihood: termites (continued).
Legend as in Fig 1.
Fig 9
Fig 9. Simplified chronogram obtained in Penalized Likelihood dating analyses.
Grey bars represent approximated 90% confidence intervals.

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Publication types

Grant support

This study was supported by Agence Nationale de la Recherche under the grant BIONEOCAL to PG (www.agence-nationale-recherche.fr) and by the US National Science Foundation under the grant DEB-1216309 to GJS (www.nsf.gov/funding). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. Molecular analyses were partially funded by Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (www.mnhn.fr) under the grant “ATM – Taxonomie moléculaire: DNA barcode et gestion durable des collections” to FL. Some specimens were collected through fieldworks supported by Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle under the grant “ATM – Biodiversité actuelle et fossile. Crises, stress, restaurations et panchronisme: le message systématique” to FL.

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