Gluten is a protein complex found in the endosperm portion of wheat, rye, and barley. "Gluten-related disorder" is a term used to describe conditions related to ingestion of gluten-containing foods. Gluten has been implicated as the cause of a variety of gastrointestinal (GI) and extraintestinal symptoms. These symptoms are often non-specific and variable, making it difficult for the primary care provider to diagnose the cause and develop a management plan. Recently, gluten-related disorders have received much attention in the popular press, and the sale of gluten-free foods has become a multi-billion dollar business. It is important for pediatric primary care providers to understand the potential role of gluten in GI health and symptomatology so appropriate screening, diagnostic testing, and management can be provided.