Recommendations for Manganese Supplementation to Adult Patients Receiving Long-Term Home Parenteral Nutrition: An Analysis of the Supporting Evidence

Nutr Clin Pract. 2016 Apr;31(2):180-5. doi: 10.1177/0884533615591600. Epub 2015 Jul 22.


Introduction: Manganese (Mn) toxicity is often observed in adult patients receiving long-term home parenteral nutrition (HPN), and differing recommendations on the safe level of Mn administration to these patients have been made in the literature over the past 10 years.

Methods: This systematic review used the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) evidence hierarchy to assess the design and strength of individual studies (high I to low IV) and the overall grade of evidence (grade A high to grade D low).

Results: Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Levels of evidence ranged from high (NHMRC II) to mid-level (III-3). A widespread recommendation in the literature for patients receiving long-term HPN is 55 µg (1 µmol) Mn/d.

Conclusion: The recommendation of 55 µg (1 µmol) Mn/d is of moderate-strength evidence (NHMRC B grade). There is limited evidence to support not supplementing Mn to patients receiving long-term HPN. Further intervention studies providing high-level evidence (II and above) are required to determine the safety of not supplementing Mn to all patients receiving long-term HPN.

Keywords: home parenteral nutrition; hypermanganesemia; manganese; micronutrients; trace elements.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Databases, Factual
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Evidence-Based Medicine*
  • Humans
  • Manganese / administration & dosage*
  • Observational Studies as Topic
  • Parenteral Nutrition, Home*


  • Manganese