Changing Epidemiology of the Respiratory Bacteriology of Patients With Cystic Fibrosis

Chest. 2016 Feb;149(2):390-400. doi: 10.1378/chest.15-0676. Epub 2016 Jan 12.


Background: Monitoring potential changes in the epidemiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) pathogens furthers our understanding of the potential impact of interventions.

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis using data reported to the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR) from 2006 to 2012 to determine the annual percent changes in the prevalence and incidence of selected CF pathogens. Pathogens included Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA), Haemophilus influenzae, Burkholderia cepacia complex, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Achromobacter xylosoxidans. Changes in nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) prevalence were assessed from 2010 to 2012, when the CFFPR collected NTM species.

Results: In 2012, the pathogens of highest prevalence and incidence were MSSA and P aeruginosa, followed by MRSA. The prevalence of A xylosoxidans and B cepacia complex were relatively low. From 2006 to 2012, the annual percent change in overall (as well as in most age strata) prevalence and incidence significantly decreased for P aeruginosa and B cepacia complex, but significantly increased for MRSA. From 2010 to 2012, the annual percent change in overall prevalence of NTM and Mycobaterium avium complex increased.

Conclusions: The epidemiology of CF pathogens continues to change. The causes of these observations are most likely multifactorial and include improvements in clinical care and infection prevention and control. Data from this study will be useful to evaluate the impact of new therapies on CF microbiology.

Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Staphylococcus aureus; cystic fibrosis; registry.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Bacteria / isolation & purification*
  • Bacterial Infections / epidemiology
  • Bacterial Infections / etiology
  • Bacterial Infections / mortality*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cystic Fibrosis / complications
  • Cystic Fibrosis / epidemiology*
  • Cystic Fibrosis / microbiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Prevalence
  • Registries
  • Respiratory System / microbiology*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Sex Distribution
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Young Adult