Interactions between muscle stem cells, mesenchymal-derived cells and immune cells in muscle homeostasis, regeneration and disease

Cell Death Dis. 2015 Jul 23;6(7):e1830. doi: 10.1038/cddis.2015.198.


Recent evidence has revealed the importance of reciprocal functional interactions between different types of mononuclear cells in coordinating the repair of injured muscles. In particular, signals released from the inflammatory infiltrate and from mesenchymal interstitial cells (also known as fibro-adipogenic progenitors (FAPs)) appear to instruct muscle stem cells (satellite cells) to break quiescence, proliferate and differentiate. Interestingly, conditions that compromise the functional integrity of this network can bias muscle repair toward pathological outcomes that are typically observed in chronic muscular disorders, that is, fibrotic and fatty muscle degeneration as well as myofiber atrophy. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge on the regulation of this network in physiological and pathological conditions, and anticipate the potential contribution of its cellular components to relatively unexplored conditions, such as aging and physical exercise.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adipocytes / cytology
  • Adipocytes / immunology
  • Adipocytes / metabolism
  • Cell Communication
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Eosinophils / cytology
  • Eosinophils / immunology
  • Eosinophils / metabolism*
  • Fibroblasts / cytology
  • Fibroblasts / immunology
  • Fibroblasts / metabolism
  • Homeostasis
  • Humans
  • Macrophages / cytology
  • Macrophages / immunology
  • Macrophages / metabolism*
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells / cytology
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells / immunology
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells / metabolism*
  • Muscle Development / physiology
  • Muscle, Skeletal / immunology
  • Muscle, Skeletal / metabolism*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / pathology
  • Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne / immunology
  • Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne / metabolism*
  • Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne / pathology
  • Regeneration / physiology
  • Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle / cytology
  • Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle / immunology
  • Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle / metabolism*