Serum concentrations of accumulated solutes, standard clinical biochemistry, and parameters of clinical neuropathy, were determined in hemodialyzed patients with chronic renal failure. Analyses by high-performance liquid chromatography included creatinine, pseudouridine, urate, p-hydroxyhippuric acid, hippuric acid, indoxylsulfate, tryptophan, tyrosine, 3-indoleacetic acid, and a number of as-yet unidentified solutes. Standard biochemical parameters were measured; aluminium, parathyroid hormone, serum electrolytes and enzymes, hemoglobin, bilirubin, phosphate and urea. Measures of clinical neuropathy were: maximal motor nerve conduction velocities, and Hoffmann reflex latency. Several solutes had higher concentrations when nerve function was impaired. Serum total LDH, and total calcium levels correlated positively with values of the Hoffmann reflex, as did serum hippuric acid concentrations. Concentrations of p-hydroxyhippuric acid and two fluorescent compounds correlated negatively with motor nerve conduction velocities. In principal component analysis a number of 'organic acid-like' substances, like hippuric acid and p-hydroxyhippuric acid, were shown to associate multivariately with the neurophysiological variables while urea, creatinine, urate and phosphate were not.