Evolving synergistic combinations of targeted immunotherapies to combat cancer

Nat Rev Cancer. 2015 Aug;15(8):457-72. doi: 10.1038/nrc3973.


Immunotherapy has now been clinically validated as an effective treatment for many cancers. There is tremendous potential for synergistic combinations of immunotherapy agents and for combining immunotherapy agents with conventional cancer treatments. Clinical trials combining blockade of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) may serve as a paradigm to guide future approaches to immuno-oncology combination therapy. In this Review, we discuss progress in the synergistic design of immune-targeting combination therapies and highlight the challenges involved in tailoring such strategies to provide maximal benefit to patients.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology
  • Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy*
  • Molecular Targeted Therapy
  • Neoplasms / immunology
  • Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Tumor Microenvironment / immunology


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Biomarkers, Tumor