PLAID: a Syndrome of Complex Patterns of Disease and Unique Phenotypes

J Clin Immunol. 2015 Aug;35(6):527-30. doi: 10.1007/s10875-015-0177-x. Epub 2015 Jul 25.


PLCG2 associated antibody deficiency and immune dysregulation (PLAID) is a complex dominantly inherited disease characterized almost universally by cold urticaria, and variably by recurrent bacterial infection, autoimmunty and skin granuloma formation. Several striking phenotypes can emerge from this disease, and the pathophysiology leads to a complex mix of loss and gain of function in cellular signaling. This review discusses the key phenotypic characteristics and pathophysiologic observations seen in PLAID, and contrasts PLAID to several related disorders in order to best contextualize this fascinating disease.

Keywords: Cold urticaria; PLAID syndrome; antibody deficiency; granuloma.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies / genetics
  • Autoimmunity / genetics
  • Bacterial Infections / immunology
  • Granuloma / immunology
  • Humans
  • Phenotype
  • Signal Transduction / genetics
  • Syndrome*
  • Urticaria / immunology


  • Antibodies