Identification of the Transmembrane Glucose Regulated Protein 78 as a Biomarker for the Brain Cancer Glioblastoma Multiforme by Gene Expression and Proteomic Studies

J Membr Sci Technol. 2014 Feb 15;4(1):1000126. doi: 10.4172/2155-9589.1000126.


The prognosis of patients with Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM), the most malignant adult glial brain tumor, remains poor in spite of advances in treatment procedures, including surgical resection, irradiation and chemotherapy. Genetic heterogeneity of GBM warrants extensive studies to gain a thorough understanding of the biology of this tumor. While there have been several studies of global transcript profiling of glioma with the identification of gene signatures for diagnosis and disease management, translation into clinics is yet to happen. In the present study, we report a novel proteomic approach by using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) followed by spot picking and analysis of proteins/peptides by Mass Spectrometry. We report Glucose Regulated Protein 78 (GRP78) as a differentially expressed protein in the GBM cell line compared to human normal Astrocyte cells. In addition to proteomic studies, we performed microarray analysis which further confirmed up regulation of GRP78 in GBM cells compared to human normal Astrocyte cells. GRP78 has long been recognized as a molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and can be induced by the ER stress response. Besides its location in the ER, GRP78 has been found in cell plasma membrane, cytoplasm, mitochondria, nucleus and other cellular secretions. GRP78 is implicated in tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis resistance, immune escape, metastasis and angiogenesis, and its elevated expression usually correlates with a variety of tumor micro environmental stresses, including hypoxia, glucose deprivation, lactic acidosis and inflammatory response. GRP78 protein acts as a centrally located sensor of stress, which senses and facilitates the adaptation to the tumor microenvironment. Our findings showed differential expression of this gene in brain cancer GBM and thus confirm similarities in findings in existing transcriptional and translational studies. Thus, these findings could be of further importance for diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic approaches for dealing with this highly malignant cancer.

Keywords: 2D-DIGE; Astrocytoma; Glioblastoma multiforme; Mass spectrometry; Microarray; Proteomics.