Although memories appear to be elusive phenomena, they are stored in the network of physical connections between neurons. Dendritic spines, which are actin-rich dendritic protrusions, serve as the contact points between networked neurons. The spines' shape contributes to the strength of signal transmission. To acquire and store information, dendritic spines must remain plastic, i.e., able to respond to signals, by changing their shape. We asked whether glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3α and GSK3β, which are implicated in diseases with neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as Alzheimer's disease, bipolar disease and schizophrenia, play a role in a spine structural plasticity. We used Latrunculin B, an actin polymerization inhibitor, and chemically induced Long-Term Depression to trigger fast spine shape remodeling in cultured hippocampal neurons. Spine shrinkage induced by either stimulus required GSK3α activity. GSK3β activity was only important for spine structural changes after treatment with Latrunculin B. Our results indicate that GSK3α is an essential component for short-term spine structural plasticity. This specific function should be considered in future studies of neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiatric conditions that originate from suboptimal levels of GSK3α/β activity.