Hepatitis B and A vaccination in HIV-infected adults: A review

Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2015;11(11):2582-98. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2015.1055424. Epub 2015 Jul 24.

Abstract

Hepatitis B and A account for considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Immunization is the most effective means of preventing hepatitis B and A. However, the immune response to both hepatitis vaccines seems to be reduced in HIV-infected subjects. The aim of this review was to analyze the immunogenicity, safety, long-term protection and current recommendations of hepatitis B and A vaccination among HIV-infected adults. The factors most frequently associated with a deficient level of anti-HBs or IgG anti-HAV after vaccination are those related to immunosuppression (CD4 level and HIV RNA viral load) and to the frequency of administration and/or the amount of antigenic load per dose. The duration of the response to both HBV and HAV vaccines is associated with suppression of the viral load at vaccination and, in the case of HBV vaccination, with a higher level of antibodies after vaccination. In terms of safety, there is no evidence of more, or different, adverse effects compared with HIV-free individuals. Despite literature-based advice on the administration of alternative schedules, revaccination after the failure of primary vaccination, and the need for periodic re-evaluation of antibody levels, few firm recommendations are found in the leading guidelines.

Keywords: HIV; Hepatitis A; Hepatitis B; adults; liver infection; prevention; vaccination.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antibody Formation
  • Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions / epidemiology
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / complications*
  • Hepatitis A / prevention & control*
  • Hepatitis A Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Hepatitis A Vaccines / adverse effects
  • Hepatitis A Vaccines / immunology*
  • Hepatitis B / prevention & control*
  • Hepatitis B Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Hepatitis B Vaccines / adverse effects
  • Hepatitis B Vaccines / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immunization, Secondary / statistics & numerical data
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Time Factors

Substances

  • Hepatitis A Vaccines
  • Hepatitis B Vaccines