Moving the Needle: Simulation's Impact on Patient Outcomes

Surg Clin North Am. 2015 Aug;95(4):827-38. doi: 10.1016/j.suc.2015.03.005. Epub 2015 Apr 22.


This review investigates the available literature that addresses the impact simulator training has on patient outcomes. The authors conducted a comprehensive literature search of studies reporting outcomes of simulation training and categorized studies based on the Kirkpatrick model of training evaluation. Kirkpatrick level 4 studies reporting patient outcomes were identified and included in this review. Existing evidence is promising, demonstrating patient benefits as a result of simulation training for central line placement, obstetric emergencies, cataract surgery, laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair, and team training.

Keywords: Kirkpatrick level; Operating room; Patient outcomes; Simulation; Surgery; Transfer of skills; Virtual reality.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Clinical Competence*
  • Computer Simulation*
  • Computer-Assisted Instruction*
  • Curriculum
  • Education, Medical, Continuing*
  • Education, Medical, Graduate*
  • Employee Performance Appraisal*
  • Evidence-Based Medicine
  • Feedback
  • General Surgery / education*
  • Humans
  • Manikins*
  • Task Performance and Analysis
  • Treatment Outcome*