Comparison of scoring systems for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a multicenter prospective cohort study

J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016 Jan;31(1):119-25. doi: 10.1111/jgh.13057.


Background and aim: The Glasgow-Blatchford score (GBS) and Rockall score (RS) are widely used to assess risk in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). We compared both scoring systems and evaluated their clinical usefulness.

Methods: Between February 2011 and December 2013, 1584 patients with nonvariceal UGIB were included in the study. A prospective study was conducted to compare the performance of the GBS, pre-RS, and full RS. We compared the performance of these scores using receiver operating characteristic curves.

Results: For prediction of the need for hospital-based intervention, the GBS was similar to the full RS (area under the receiver operating characteristic curves [AUROC] 0.705 vs 0.727; P = 0.282) and superior to the pre-RS (AUROC 0.705 vs 0.601; P < 0.0001). In predicting death, the full RS was superior to the GBS (AUROC 0.758 vs 0.644; P = 0.0006) and similar to the pre-RS (AUROC 0.758 vs 0.754; P = 0.869). In predicting rebleeding, the full RS was superior to both GBS (AUROC 0.642 vs 0.585; P = 0.031) and pre-RS (AUROC 0.642 vs 0.593; P = 0.0003). Of 1584 patients, 13 (0.8%) scored 0 on the GBS. Therapeutic intervention was not performed in any of these patients.

Conclusions: The GBS is more useful than the pre-RS for predicting the need for hospital-based intervention. A cutoff value of 0 for low-risk patients who might be suitable for outpatient management is useful. The full RS is helpful in predicting death. None of the systems accurately predict rebleeding with a low AUROC. (

Clinical trial:

Keywords: intervention; mortality; upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Ambulatory Care
  • Area Under Curve
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage* / mortality
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage* / therapy
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prospective Studies
  • ROC Curve
  • Recurrence
  • Risk
  • Risk Assessment / methods
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Severity of Illness Index*

Associated data

  • CRiS/KCT0000514