Atherosclerosis is considered a chronic inflammatory disease and an intervention targeting the inflammatory process could be a new therapeutic strategy for preventing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We hypothesized that the intestine, which is considered the biggest immune organ in the human body, could be a therapeutic target for preventing CVD. We demonstrated that oral administration of anti-CD3 antibody or an active form of vitamin D3 reduced atherosclerosis in mice via induction of regulatory T cells and tolerogenic dendritic cells in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. Similar to regulatory immune responses achieved by oral tolerance, our method had systemic effects that ultimately contributed towards atherosclerosis reduction. Recently, we have been interested in the gut microbiota, which have been reported as highly associated with intestinal immunity and systemic metabolic disorders, including obesity and diabetes. Notably, the guts of obese individuals are predominantly colonized by Firmicutes over Bacteroidetes. The association between atherosclerosis and microbiota has been attracting increased attention, and gut microbiota have been shown to participate in the metabolism of a proatherogenic compound called trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and aggravate CVD. Our investigation of the relationship between susceptibility to CVD and the gut microbiota revealed a characteristic flora type. Here, we discuss the evidence for the relationship between the gut microbiota and cardiometabolic diseases, and consider the gut microbiota as new potential therapeutic targets for treating CVD. (Circ J 2015; 79: 1882-1890).