Effects of temperature on the quality of black garlic

J Sci Food Agric. 2016 May;96(7):2366-72. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.7351. Epub 2015 Sep 3.


Background: Black garlic is a type of garlic product that is generally produced by heating raw garlic at high temperature with controlled humidity for more than 30 days. Black garlic has appeared on the market for many years. It is crucial to investigate the characteristics of quality formation of black garlic during processing at various temperatures.

Results: In this study, fresh garlic was processed to black garlic at temperatures of 60, 70, 80 and 90 °C. Moisture, amino acid nitrogen and allicin contents decreased gradually during thermal processing of various temperatures. Reducing sugar, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, total phenols, total acids contents and browning increased. The changing rate of quality indicators and flavour of black garlic varied at different temperatures. Browning intensity reached about 74 when black garlic aged. The sensory score was significantly higher in black garlic aged at 70 °C (39.95 ± 0.31) compared with that at other temperatures, suggesting that 70 °C might facilitate formation of good quality and flavour of black garlic during processing.

Conclusion: Temperature had a remarkable impact on the quality and flavour of black garlic. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

Keywords: black garlic; flavour; processing; quality; temperature.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acids / chemistry
  • Cooking*
  • Disulfides
  • Food Analysis*
  • Food Quality*
  • Furaldehyde / analogs & derivatives
  • Furaldehyde / chemistry
  • Garlic / chemistry*
  • Nitrogen / chemistry
  • Phenols / chemistry
  • Sulfinic Acids / chemistry
  • Temperature


  • Amino Acids
  • Disulfides
  • Phenols
  • Sulfinic Acids
  • allicin
  • 5-hydroxymethylfurfural
  • Furaldehyde
  • Nitrogen