An outbreak of acute flaccid paralysis in Jamaica in 1986 associated with echovirus type 22 is described. Six patients aged 1 to 27 years developed acute onset of severe flaccid paralysis, with inability to walk. Three cases had facial weakness, four required intensive care with assisted ventilation, and two died. Echovirus type 22 was isolated from the stool of two patients who showed a significant increase in antibody titre. Echovirus type 22 was also isolated from the stool of another patient who had aseptic meningitis without any neurological deficit. There was no evidence of poliovirus infection in any of these patients, most of whom were fully immunized. Of the four surviving cases with flaccid paralysis, three had residual weakness in their lower limbs and walked with an abnormal gait 3 years after the acute paralytic attack. This is the first report in the literature of acute flaccid paralysis associated with type 22 echovirus.