Paravalvular regurgitation after conventional aortic and mitral valve replacement: A benchmark for alternative approaches

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2015 Oct;150(4):860-8.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2015.06.047. Epub 2015 Jun 27.


Objective: Paravalvular regurgitation is a known complication after transcatheter and sutureless aortic valve replacement. Paravalvular regurgitation also may develop in patients undergoing percutaneous mitral valve replacement. There are few studies on contemporary surgical valve replacement for comparison. We sought to determine the contemporary occurrence of paravalvular regurgitation after conventional surgical valve replacement.

Methods: We performed a single-center retrospective database review involving 1774 patients who underwent valve replacement surgery from April 2004 to December 2012: aortic in 1244, mitral in 386, and combined aortic and mitral in 144. Follow-up echocardiography was performed in 73% of patients. Patients with endocarditis were analyzed separately from noninfectious paravalvular leaks. Statistical comparisons were performed to determine differences in paravalvular regurgitation incidence and survival.

Results: During follow-up, 1+ or greater (mild or more) paravalvular regurgitation occurred in 2.2% of aortic cases and 2.9% of mitral cases. There was 2+ or greater (moderate or more) paravalvular regurgitation in 0.9% of aortic and 2.2% of mitral cases (P = .10). After excluding endocarditis, late noninfectious regurgitation 2+ or greater was detected in 0.5% of aortic and 0.4% of mitral cases (P = .93); there were no reoperations or percutaneous closures for noninfectious paravalvular regurgitation.

Conclusions: In an academic medical center, the overall rate of paravalvular regurgitation is low, and late clinically significant noninfectious paravalvular regurgitation is rare. The benchmark for paravalvular regurgitation after conventional valve replacement is high and should be considered when evaluating patients for transcatheter or sutureless valve replacement.

Keywords: aortic valve replacement; mitral valve replacement; paravalvular regurgitation.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aortic Valve / surgery*
  • Aortic Valve Insufficiency / etiology*
  • Benchmarking*
  • Female
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation / adverse effects*
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation / methods*
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation / standards
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mitral Valve / surgery*
  • Mitral Valve Insufficiency / etiology*
  • Retrospective Studies